Nuances of an Art Recapitulated

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A reproduction Lydia china doll with well done face painting

Antique dolls are an art form. It is easy to see the art in the beautiful French bisque dolls of Bru, Steiner, and Jumeau, yet the less complex porcelain china dolls exhibit their artistry in the design of their face and shoulder mold, in the purity of the porcelain from which they are made, and in the beauty of their hairstyles and face painting. As one who collects and studies antique dolls, I often come across reproductions of the antique dolls in my searches. The durability of the one piece porcelain shoulder-heads renders them quite attractive for making new molds from the antique heads.

In all fairness though, molds, or copies,  were being made of the old doll heads when they were still contemporary. Old papier mache heads have been found that are copies of German china dolls, and not all have a known maker. Martha Chase modeled her cloth dolls after French or German bisque dolls of the time, possibly using a bisque doll as a mold for her oil painted dolls. Even the Schoenhut “Miss Dolly” was modeled after a German doll owned by a child in the company’s family.

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This Schoenhut wooden Miss Dolly doll in my collection dates to about 1915.

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Schoenhut, an American manufacturer, found it profitable to add the Dolly Face doll to their line of character dolls at a time when dolls could no longer be imported from Germany during WWI.

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Here is an antique German bisque dolly face by Heubach. The Schoenhut doll above is quite similar with fat cheeks and pretty, but non-descript, features.

Many antique china dolls (as well as other antique dolls) are so rare now that a well executed reproduction can be a blessing for collectors like me who may never see one of these older revered dolls, much less ever expect to own one.  For this reason, a few artistic reproduction dolls, as well as a reissue doll, have gained entry with respectable status into my collection of antique dolls.

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I have already introduced you to my reproduction Izannah Walker doll, Miss Ruby. She is a faithful and artistic rendering of an antique doll, made by Paula Walton. She is very close in her production to an antique Izannah Walker doll, and very likely as close as I can come to owning an example of this highly sought after and extremly expensive example of American folk art at its’ best.

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Miss Ruby is my reproduction Izannah Walker doll

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Cordelia, a reproduction china doll, has pleasant face painting, but it is not the same as an antique German china doll. Also, the glaze on her porcelain causes the crisp lines of the detailed braids to be lost. She is not signed by the artist.

Another reproduction doll in my collection is my first china doll, Cordelia. She was most likely molded from a Parian doll, a porcelain doll that was not glazed, but made from white bisque. This hairstyle was also reproduced by Emma Clear and named “Toinette.” I have not yet found an antique doll with braids like Cordelia to add to my collection.

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This antique Parian doll has the same hairstyle as Cordelia, but with added flowers in the loop of the braid. She also has molded lace around her shoulders and glass eyes. Her braids are crisp with individual brush strokes in the hair. She is much more exquisite, and better artistically rendered than Cordelia.

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An antique  Hertwig “Curl on Top” china doll is shown next to a reproduction of the same doll.

The Hertwig “Curl on Top” china doll is uncommon, but not rare. I purchased the reproduction of this doll, on the right above, while waiting to find an antique one to add to my collection. I was not happy with the reproduction. In comparison, the porcelain quality is inferior, the hair color is a bit garish and lacks crispness, and the face painting has no depth. I am happy to have found my antique Hertwig doll. Notice that the reproduction shoulder-head is slightly smaller that the original. This shrinkage occurs when a mold is made of an existing head. The new head is molded from the antique and shrinks when fired in the kiln.

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The face painting on this 13″ Hertwig doll is typical for this manufacturer, circa 1900. The hair is nicely molded with brush strokes.

Another doll on my wish list is an 1840’s Lydia china doll. Unfortunately for me, this antique doll is quite rare, and well out of my price range when she is to be found. I have, however, seen a few good reproductions of this doll, and I was fortunate enough to have added one to my collection.

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An antique china doll with Lydia hairstyle circa 1840. The face painting on this doll indicates that she was made by the A. W. Kister Porcelain Factory. Note her pink tint with whites of eyes.

The reproduction that I purchased has an appropriate reproduction body with flat soled shoes and spoon hands. Her face painting is well done. She cost me 1% of the $5000 to $6000 that an antique Lydia sells for.

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This is the reproduction Lydia, marked “Rossi” on the back of her shoulder-plate. She may have been molded from a doll like the one above. Her coloring is not as high as the antique doll pictured above, and her lips are painted differently, yet her painting is good. As with the antique Lydia, she has a pale pink tint and the whites of her eyes remain white.

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The little doll in the pocket of the antique dress is an antique “baderkinder” or Frozen Charlotte with a Lydia hairstyle.

“Curly Top” is another uncommon, though not rare, china doll that is often found reproduced. This one with black hair is marked “P S” on the back of her shoulder-plate.

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The painting on this 3″ reproduction Curly Top is well done, but not quite like the originals. Again, the hair is not crisp through the thicker applied glaze. Some antique Curly Top dolls have delicate wisps of hair painted at the tips of the curls.

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This circa 1880 antique Curly Top in my collection, with Cafe Au Lait hair, is larger than the reproduction above, with a shoulder-head that measures 5 3/4″. She is beautifully painted in the style of Alt Beck & Gottschalck dolls. The accent line painted between her lips has a very slight V dip in the middle which gives her an introspective smile.

Almost all of the newer china doll copies are reproductions; however, there is one that is a re-issue of an antique doll made by the original company. This is the Royal Copenhagen porcelain doll with a brown bun that was originally made in the 1840’s. Royal Copenhagen re-issued this porcelain shoulder-head from their molds beginning in 1977 with production lasting into the 1980’s. This doll (along with a larger lady and a boy doll) is well made and artistically rendered from the original company. It is difficult to tell the difference from the original antique doll. She is a work of art, beautifully sculpted with her long lady’s neck, mature face, pale pink tint, and face painting details.

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The smaller re-issue Royal Copenhagen Bun Lady doll in my collection is also known as “Amalie” by collectors.

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This antique 1840’s Royal Copenhagen doll, from the collection of Kirsten Johansen, was featured on the May 2015 cover of Antique Doll Collector magazine for their article on Royal Copenhagen Dolls.

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“Denmark” and the Royal Copenhagen waived blue lines are clearly visible on the back of the shoulder-plate of the re-issue doll in my collection.

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I recently found an appropriate body for this doll with low heeled shoes and lady-like hands, but she has no clothing yet.

With much of what we consider as art at its’ finest, we must visit a museum to see it in all of its’ splendor. It is the rare and wealthy collector who can hope to own a Degas sculpture or a Carl Larsson painting. We may decide to bring home a small reproduction of a favorite sculpture, or a print of a painting we admire. Likewise, some of the most lovely antique dolls are so rare that bringing one into our personal collection is just not possible. Of course an oil painting will be much higher quality than a print of that painting. And so an original antique doll will be superior to a reproduction. With this maxim in mind, it is best to bring the antique doll into a collection whenever possible. Yet a good quality reproduction of an antique doll can bring the art of the doll recapitulated into our space, and bring joy to our collection when the original doll is out of reach.

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Antique photo of girl holding a Covered Wagon style china doll

May you surround yourself with art that speaks to your heart and soul.

Introducing Hannah Lavender through The Daybook of Eleanor Rose

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Although an antique doll who comes to us often feels private and personal, we  know that our antique dolls and their clothing have a history of their own. To have provenance for a doll is a wonderful validation of her place of origin and her people who came before us. Many dolls that come to us from “The Market” do not come with provenance. Below is my creative imagining for how this wax head doll, who I have named Hannah Lavender, came to her family of origin, and how she had her wardrobe bestowed upon her:

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Antique Regency Era Fine Muslin Dress. Notice the diamond shaped back panel.

April, 1811:    It is in this month that I, Eleanor Rose, reach my 16th year. I have received an invitation to the ball to be held at Dawlish next month. I am admonished to keep my deportment demur, tho I must confess here that I am quite overcome with excitement! MaMa has orderd muslin from London. My new gown is to be the latest cut with high waist, tiny puff sleeves, and narrow skirts.

Late April, 1811:    My new gown is ready! The muslin is of pale lavender patterned in circlets. The sleeves and bodice seams are set with tiny piping, and there are self fabric bands accenting the hem. How the muslin does flow when I walk and dance! MaMa has saved some nice lavender sprigs to accent my hair, and I am to wear her amethyst necklace and earrings. The ball is Saturday next!

 

Antique Sheer Regengy dresses Hamburg Museum

Oh what airey muslin!

May 1811:    The Dawlish ball was just the most gay affair! Ever so many ladies turned out in the palest muslin gowns, though mine was not to be bested. I was introduced to Mr. Adam Fletcher, a most amiable dance partner. He attended on me often during the evening and arranged to be seated at my side for the banquet. He is to call on us tomorrow. My heart is aflutter!

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A spencer jacket and lovey embroidery.

June, 1817:    Our dearest baby girl, Juliet Henrietta, arrived this month–the very month that my Mr. Fletcher and I were wed these five years gone. Charles and Hudson are lovely energetic boys yet I am delighted to have a girl child to dote upon.

January, 1823:    Christmas was a fine celebration this year. Charles received a bow with arrows and Hudson has a fine set of soldiers. Juliet was delighted with her wooden doll with black curls on each side of her face. Adam also brought her a wee set of tea dishes made in the Staffordshire district. We all delighted in the artistry of the blue painting on the pot and tiny cups. They will be kept back for Sunday play until Juliet is old enough to care for them properly. We will keep occupied these cold rainy days in making petticoats and frocks from pickings out of the rag bag for the new poppet.

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Early 19th century attire for well-to-do children

October, 1847:    Our Juliet has given us a granddaughter. Praise God, the child is born alive and is thriving. She is christened Louisa Elizabeth. Master Graham, being nine years her senior will not be of an age for her playmate. He will soon be learning the estate.

October, 1856:    Louisa is quite the young lady. Adam, the ever doting Grand PaPa presented her with the most lovely wax head doll for her birthday. The doll has curls of real auburn hair and blue glass eyes. She is of a likeness to Louisa. I took my old muslin dress that I wore when I first was introduced to Adam from the rag pile. There is enough good material to make a play frock with a yoke for Louisa and a dress with tiny white braid trim for the doll. Louisa has named her doll Hannah.

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Mid 19th century child dress with wide neckline and puff sleeves.

June, 1870: Some days my tired old bones do not allow me to walk down the stairs. Today Louisa came up to sit with me. She is quite the fashionable lady now, and is skilled at copying the latest Paris designs. She learned sewing making simple frocks for her wax doll. She brought that old doll up to show me with a new frock she had created with remnants. It is fashioned of bright red strips with gold tinsel woven in the fabric. The little frock has a low waist and a nicely fashioned coat. I must say, it lacks the elegance and flow of my old lavender muslin dance dress. I wonder what ever became of Juliet’s wooden doll with the black curls . . .

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This is how the wax head doll appeared on the sales table in Portland, August 2015. Everyone, including me, noticed the lovely and demure muslin dress before noticing the doll to whom it belonged!

Again, the above journal is a fictional account. Yet it is an apt provenance for a lovely little doll and her varied wardrobe.

Hannah Lavender is 14.5″ tall. She has a shoulder-head attached to a cloth body with possibly papier mache arms and legs with bare feet. Her limbs are smoothy painted or gessoed. She has blue glass stationary eyes and soft mohair auburn hair with bangs. I believe that she is English.

Dating wax dolls is not easy because they are rarely marked. This little girl seems to be from the mid 1800’s. A post by Dolls By DianeComplete History of Wax Dolls, gives good information on this type of antique doll.

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The lavender muslin dress seems to be the earliest style in the wardrobe , possibly dating circa 1850, while the red dress with the drop waist, pleated back, and longer jacket is an 1870’s to 1880’s style.

 

The lavender muslin dress, which is the highlight of Hannah Lavender’s wardrobe, is a lovely creation in its modesty, even though the red dress is more showy. Muslin is a plain weave fabric which originated in cotton in the Middle East and was imported to England from India. It was a favored dress fabric in the early to mid 19th century in gauzy weave of pale pastel colors. Jane Austen’s Mr. Tilney knew all about fine muslin–his sister wore only white muslin dresses. Today, we know muslin more readily in a denser weave of bleached or unbleached serviceable material that was used for backing quilts and making sheets, curtains, aprons, nightgowns, and undergarments.

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This photo shows the reverse side of the dress with the cartridge pleats at the waist. You can also see the ties that fasten the dress at the back neckline. All is hand sewn.

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The hem is reinforced with a denser cotton which gives the dress more body to hold its flared skirt. This is different from the airy flowing Regency styles shown above.

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Here is the condition of the dress when I received it, after a light laundering. The hem is adorned with two self fabric bias cut bands edged with tiny white braid at the top of each band. Some of the thread holding the bands in place has rotted away, leaving the bands loose and with frayed edges.

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A close-up shows the delicate print of white circles on the pale lavender muslin. It is faded with a few sections showing more color. The top band is newly sewn while the bottom band is tacked in place with pins to position it for hand sewing.

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Hannah Lavender’s wardrobe consists of the featured red dress and lavender muslin dress. She wears a knee-length chemise and ankle-length split drawers under her muslin dress. There is also a cream wool narrow petticoat with a cotton waistband, two coarser made short dresses (one in off-white with black velvet bands at the hem, one in pink with white stripes) and a soft muslin nightgown with a pink satin ribbon. She also has a straw bonnet with blue silk lining, which is cracked at the brim. The added brown velvet cap with red flowers compliments the red dress.

 

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Hannah Lavender is sweet and demure with her freshly mended dress. Though stable, the crack in the wax on her forehead is evidence of her age and endurance.

 

Finding an antique doll with her original wardrobe is exciting! Some dolls had several dresses and accompanying clothing made within a few years as their young mistresses learned sewing skills. Other dolls, as seems to be the case with Hannah Lavender, had clothing evidencing styles from a wider span of years and sewing skill level. The styles and construction are indeed a delight to behold, learn from, and speculate about.

 

Please Come to Tea, Part 2: Little Toy Dishes

Antique Photo girl with big hair bow toy tea with bisque doll

Little child-sized and toy dishes were made in abundance in England’s Staffordshire district potteries, especially throughout the 19th century. Staffordshire, which is a district of six towns on the western edge of England near Wales, was well suited to the pottery industry because of the ready availability of clay, salt, lead, and coal. As with Thuringia (Germany) being a center of toymaking before the advent of the china dolls made there, Staffordshire made pottery before the advent of porcelain. It was a center for pottery production since the early 17th century, noted for reddish brown wares. In 1720, potter John Astbury discovered that adding heated flint to the clay produced a more desirable lighter clay known as creamware. Soon after this discovery, beautiful English made pottery began to grace the tables of well-to-do families in England and America. Of course, modifications to the pottery continued to improve and add variations from soft paste or semi-porcelain, to ironstone and fine bone china.

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18th century creamware and feather edge shards

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The two little 3″ Leeds feather edged plates, circa 1790-1800

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This tiny cup, saucer, and teapot are all hand painted. Though not part of the same set, the painting and color are similar enough on both that they display well together. The London style handleless cup and deep dish saucer date to 1810. The cup is only 1 5/8″ tall. The pot is pearlware dating to about 1820. It has the characteristic ball shape, raised rim, slightly curved spout, and plain handle of early English teapots.  It is 4″ tall.

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This photo shows the size of these little dishes, and how they display with an antique china doll. Moira is a stout 19″ tall. Her hair style is a molded snood. She is planning to have tea at home with no guests–she is wearing her morning dress with tiny waived braid (rickrack) trim.

Thanks to the Children

Children’s and toy dishes were made alongside those created for adults. The play dishes, then as now, were a whimsy that delighted adults as well as children. Dinner and tea sets were charming gifts for children from parents, grandparents, and adoring aunts and uncles. And so, we can thank these wealthy and merchant class children for the little dishes that have been cherished, and those that have made it through well preserved (or not), and passed down through time to become available to us, as admirers and collectors in our time.

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Two sugar boxes or bowls. First is a beige rectangular one with an Adam Buck transfer from about 1820. The lid is missing its finial, and is actually the matching teapot lid, which was the same size-it has a steam hole in the opposite side. Second is a circa 1835 hand painted bowl with pink luster trim. Both are small (doll sized)  at about 2 1/2″ tall.

The poor children, though, deserve just as much, if not more, thanks for our little whimsies. Poor children have always had to work just as soon as their parents could find employment for them, and the Staffordshire potteries did offer employment for many children throughout the 19th century. Children as young as five or six years could fetch, carry, prepare raw materials, and provide power for the few machines that potters used. Many children at age eight to ten were working 72 hour weeks to the detriment of their health and education. At age 14, most children working in potteries became apprenticed to a particular trade-thrower, presser, transferer, or paintress. In 1840 Parliamentary inquiries were made into the state of children employed in mines and factories, leading to child labor laws.

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Preparing plates for transfers which were applied on tissue paper

 

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Two sugar bowls dating 1835-1840 have light blue transfers. The lids for both have not survived. These bowls without the lids measure 3″ tall by 4″ wide, and 2 1/2″ tall by 5″ wide.

To Teach, to Play, to Cherish

With so much to teach the young ones in the way of ettiquette, it was inevitable for child sized and toy tea and dinner sets to become more readily available. Children learned rituals and manners by having dinner or tea parties with their peers or by serving their dolls.

 

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Girl with a Goat is a pattern dating 1860 to 1870. Notice the fancy handle on the cup. This transfer is a pleasant forest green. The set was also made in red and a lovely flow blue, and I saw one for sale in an amazing mulberry color. It is a child sized set with the saucer being 5″ in diameter.

The 1860’s marked the start of mass production of toy dishes. After this time, parents could be more generous with their children with gift giving. An 1890 Butler Brothers catalog is evidence that there were toy sets available for the taste and means of every family. Children’s tea sets were available in price from five cents to five dollars. By studying the quality of sets we find today, we can guess which ones were at which end of this spectrum!

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This doll “house” with the 8″ Ginny and Muffy dolls always photographs dark. You can see the two Fishers plates on their shelf. Barely over 2″ across, one is red and one is blue. Below is a slightly larger plate with a blue floral transfer.

Transferware became the decoration of choice for English pottery after its development in the second half of the 18th century. Early designs were based on Chinese designs, called Chinoiserie. Early transferware was blue because only underglaze cobalt blue could withstand the heat of the glost ovens. Lead oxide gave wares the characteristic depth of color that made them so successful.

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Examples of early blue transfers, circa 1830 to 1840. The Kite Flyer plate on the stand to the right is a favorite colonial scene. The other scenic transfer is Monastery on the Hill. The transfers on this pattern are often more clear, and it has a nice floral border. These are doll sized dishes. The little tureen is just 3″ across.

By 1800 some English scenes became available as transfer designs. After the Napoleonic Wars, in 1815, there was a trade boom and European scenes and subjects were in vogue. Pieces made for export to America were often very dark blue, and some had patriotic subjects.

Later developments allowed for other monochrome colors in transferware such as green, mild red known as puce, mulberry, black, and sepia or brown. Polychrome designs were made by adding painted colors over a transfer design.

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The sepia color Dresden Flowers teapot is circa 1830. It has a flanged rim with a well-fitting recessed lid. It is 2 5/8″ tall. The vegetable bowl, also in sepia, is Souveneir and dates 1830-1840. It is 4″ across. Both of these little treasures are perfect in the 1:4 scale doll house.

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These plates in graduated sizes are also Dresden Flowers like the teapot above. This transfer is moss green, though this pattern has not been recorded as available in green. The largest plate measures 3 1/2″ in diameter.

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These soft paste plates are not a recorded pattern, though they have the characteristics of toy Staffordshire. 3″ and 3 1/4″

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A desirable transferware sheet pattern in soft paste dating circa 1830’s, Dimity is found most often in blue. This green collection shows some breaks and blurring to the transfers, which is typical, as these were considered as play dishes and were meant to be inexpensive toys. Dimity has been found in puce, sepia, and black as well as blue and green.

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This blue May with Pets sugar pot (or biscuit jar) is from around 1880. It measures just under 5″ to the top of the lid. The other tall sugar pot shares a shape, or blank, with several documented tea sets from circa 1862. I have not found this red transfer of oak leaves and acorns in the reference books. This one has seen rough times with a broken handle and missing lid. It is 4″ tall without the lid.

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This pattern, a lovely example of transfer with hand painting and gold trim added, is called Amherst Japan. There is a child’s tea set in this pattern, circa 1854, but no mention of a child’s dinner set. This small tray may be a piece from a full size dinner set. It measures 6″ across.

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The Amherst Japan tray is the right size to be a serving piece in the 1:4 doll house. It is shown here with two pieces of the French set that is described below.

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While Staffordshire is the place for children’s play dishes, there were lovely sets from other places as well. These tureens are part of a set made in France. The pottery, known as “Old Paris,” is very white, and the red and gold painted accents are quite detailed. The finials are two nobs that look like hops berries. The tureens date circa 1870-1880 and measure 5″ across.

Toy Copeland Lavender Leaf dish set

This lovely Lavender Leaf partial dinner set has recently joined my collection. I love how well made it is. The transfer pattern is clear and sharp, the deep lavender blue color is superb, and the little dishes are even and not too heavy. It dates to 1840-1850 and is doll sized. The square covered dish is just 2 3/4″ across.

For Your Pleasure and Continued Education

Staffordshire has been home to well known potteries such as Wedgwood, Copeland, and Ridgway, as well as to hundreds of small firms that have come and gone through the years. The variety and patterns available for antique toy Staffordshire dishes are too numerous to document–more are being discovered now, and several that I have shown you here are not in the reference books. The best reference books with color illustrations are Doris Lecher’s English Toy China, and Lorraine Punchard’s Playtime Pottery and Porcelain. Find them new and/or used from BN.com.

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These two child sized collections are displayed in a small cabinet. The top shelf holds blue and green tureens, cups, saucers, and plates from the Maidenhair Fern collection. Below it is a tea set with the transfer known as May with Pets. The tall sugar pot with this set is also referred to as a biscuit jar. Both sets date to 1880-1890.

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This is the large green Maidenhair Fern tureen. I especially like this find because it came with the pottery ladle! The ladles for dinner sets are rare because they were so easily broken. The tureen is 6 1/2″ long and the ladle measures 3 3/4″.

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This darling sugar jar is from the Old Mother Hubbard collection, circa 1870 to 1890. It is 4″ tall. One reference claims this is English while the other says American made.

Living in the Pacific Northwest, I do not find toy Staffordshire at my local antique shops and sales. Luckily, it is fairly available on eBay and Ruby Lane, if one is not too discerning in searching for particular patterns and colors. When you are ready to shop for your own toy Staffordshire dishes, I highly recommend Nancy Barrister’s Ruby Lane shop, “Childhood Antiques.” She offers a good selection of antique children’s tea and dinner sets. Additionally, if your budget can only handle single pieces rather than sets, she has a good revolving selection on eBay at nbarrister. Nancy is a friendy and accomodating seller who provides professional packing for your treasures.

For a broader view of the scope of English toy china dishes, an observation of how they changed over the years, and more information on the makers of these pottery whimsies and their marks, I highly recommend two books:

  • English Toy China by Doris Anderson Lechler. 1989; Antique Publications, Marietta, Ohio.
  • Playtime Pottery & Porcelain from the United Kingdom & the United States by Lorraine Punchard. 1996; Schiffer Publishing Ltd, Atglen, PA.
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Miranda’s Humphrey’s Clock tea set is now complete. Here we have the last sugar bowl of our mystery grouping from Part 1 of this article, at circa 1900. It is open and intentionally has no lid. This sugar bowl is 2″ tall, while Miranda is 26″ tall.

Now that you are well on your way to appreciating Staffordshire children’s dishes, please come to tea and tell me about your observations and finds!

 

Please Come to Tea, Part 1: A History of Tea and Equipage in England

 

Antique postcard two girls doll and Staffordhire tea set (2)

Damp winter days are the time to cuddle up with a hot cup of tea and a good book, but spring Valentines, bunnies, and baskets beg for a tea party! All the antique dolls are invited, and there will be plenty of dishes to go around with all the lovelies that were made in the Staffordshire district in England, and a few other places of note as well. There will be plenty to share for two articles on this subject:

While Germany is the place of origin for fine antique china (glazed porcelain) dolls, England is unequivocally the place where delicate and whimsical children’s dishes were made in beautiful abundance. Antique children’s Staffordshire dishes are the perfect compliment for antique dolls. The depth in their history, and the wide variety that these little toys provide, make them a joy to collect, display, and play with!

When Tea Came to England

The history of English porcelain, and that of play dishes, is closely connected with the history of tea in England. Great Britain has been one of the world’s  greatest consumers of tea since the 18th century. Tea was already know by the upper classes in Europe  when green tea, exported from China, was first offered in London coffeehouses in 1657. Coffeehouse owner Thomas Garraway had to explain the new beverage in pamphlets and advertisements. For 30 September 1658, he offered “That Excellent, and by all Physicians approved, China drink, called by the Chinese, Tcha, by other nations Tay, alias Tee, …sold at ye Cophee-house in Sweetings-Rents, by the Royal Exchange, London.”  By 1659, coffee, chocolate, and “tee” were sold in London in almost every street, with tea being mostly consumed by men of upper and mercantile classes.

Catherine of Braganza

Catherine of Braganza

In 1662 princess Catherine of Braganza from Portugal married Charles II and brought with her the preference for tea, which had already become common in Europe. As tea was her temperance drink of choice, it gained social acceptance among the aristocracy. Catherine of Braganza’s choice of tea was also instrumental in the popularization of tea in Britain. Because tea was introduced primarily through male frequented coffee houses, there would have been far less social acceptability for women to drink this beverage had it not been for her example. Catherine of Braganza’s use of tea as a court beverage, rather than a medicinal drink, influenced its popularity.

Black tea overtook green tea in popularity in the 1720s when sugar and milk were added to tea, a practice that was not done in China. The growth in the import of tea parallels that of sugar in the 18th century. Between 1720 and 1750 the imports of tea to Britain through the British East India Company more than quadrupled. Tea was particularly interesting to the Atlantic world, not only because it was easy to cultivate, but also because of how easy it was to prepare, and its ability to revive the spirits and cure mild colds.

Porcelain for Serving and for Showing

When tea was served in such a grand setting as that of Catherine of Braganza, it was generally in the company of female friends within a bedchamber or closet (a small room for entertaining guests near the bedchamber). The tea itself and the delicate pieces of porcelain for brewing and drinking it were displayed in the closet. Inventories for wealthy households during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries list tea equipage in these small private closets or boudoirs, not in kitchens or dining rooms.

17th century tea drinking

The earliest English equipages for making tea date to the 1660s. Small porcelain tea bowls were used by the fashionable; they were occasionally shipped with the tea itself. Tea-drinking hastened the search for a European imitation of Chinese porcelain, which was first successfully produced in England at the Chelsea porcelain manufactory established around 1745 and quickly imitated. Chelsea is the first important porcelain manufactory in England; its earliest soft-paste porcelain aimed at the aristocratic market.

Soft-paste porcelain resulted from the earliest attempts of European potters to replicate Chinese porcelain at a time when its composition was little understood. The earliest formulations were mixtures of clay and ground-up glass.

Tea-set-Getty-Museum-chg early Leeds type

Still Life: Tea Set  Jean-Etienne Liotard (Swiss, 1702-89) About 1781-83

The tea equipage in the painting above has the characteristic shape of early Leeds Pottery with Chinese scenes which were popular at that time. The teapot on the left has a round shape, a raised rim, and plain handle and spout with a very slight curve. Behind it is a tea caddy, a piece that is not commonly found in sets after the early 1800’s. The bowls or cups are handleless and the saucers are deep dish. There is a large slop basin, or waste bowl, in the upper right corner. This was a necessary piece for English sets, as it was never appropriate to pour fresh tea onto cold tea in a cup. Next is the sugar bowl, which is large, with tongs on top. Sugar was less refined in the 18th century, so more was needed, hence a larger bowl. The milk jug, or cream pitcher, has a small pointed spout.

In her blog, Unique Histories from the 18th and 19th Centuries, Geri Walton offers more on English tea equipage:

When tea was introduced to the English in the mid 1600s, the English drank it using the traditional handleless bowls the Chinese used, and referred to a “dish of tea” rather than a cup. These handleless bowls were about half as large as teacups are now. They held just a few sips, anything from two or three elegantly sipped mouthfuls to two or three tablespoons. Interestingly, coffee cups had always been larger, and straight-sided, in comparison to the smaller, curved teacups. Coffee cups also gained a handle before teacups. Eventually, however, the English adapted the handle for teacups from the handle used on “posset” cups. Posset cups served as containers for hot spiced medieval drinks of curdled milk mixed with wine or ale, and these cups acquired handles to prevent injury to sensitive fingers. However, teacup handles did not appear until the nineteenth century. By the late 1800’s there were many choices of tea cup styles available.

To Follow the Queen: Etiquette and Manners

If you have read Jane Austen, then you realize how complex, and how very important, etiquette was to people–especially in England–in the 18th and 19th centuries. Tea and dinner evolved into complex rituals requiring the correct accoutrements.

Even Americans followed a proper etiquette, which changed over time. I have always been intrigued with this passage about tea drinking manners from Farmer Boy by Laura Ingalls Wilder. The setting here is Upper New York State circa 1866:

Eliza Jane was more bossy than ever [after a term at Malone Academy]. She said Almanzo’s boots made too much noise. She even told Mother that she was mortified because father drank tea from his saucer.

“My land! How else would he cool it?” Mother asked.

“It isn’t the style to drink out of saucers any more,” Eliza Jane said. “Nice people drink out of the cup.”

“Eliza Jane!” Alice cried. “Be Ashamed! I guess Father’s as nice as anybody!”

Mother actually stopped working. She took her hands out of the dishpan and turned to face Eliza Jane. “Young lady,” she said, “if you have to show off your fine education, you tell me where saucers come from.”

Eliza Jane Wilder as a young woman

Eliza Jane Wilder

Eliza Jane opened her mouth, and shut it, and looked foolish.

“They come from China,” Mother said. “Dutch sailors brought them from China, two hundred years ago, the first time sailors ever sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found China. Up to that time, folks drank out of cups; they didn’t have saucers. Ever since they’ve had saucers, they’ve drunk out of them. I guess a thing that folks have done for two hundred years we can keep on doing. We’re not likely to change, for a new-fangled notion that you’ve got in Malone Academy.”

That shut up Eliza Jane.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Farmer Boy, Harper & Row; New York, 1933.

. . . We would have to surmise from the history above that people in England and America didn’t have saucers before 1665, and possibly the cups referred to before then in the above passage were posset cups!? And we do indeed drink tea out of cups these days.   😉

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Late 1700’s Feather Edge Leed’s England toy plates blend well with little 18th century pewter plates and Victorian toy forks and knives. The plates are only 3″ in diameter.

With so much to teach the young ones in the way of ettiquette, it was inevitable for child sized and toy tea and dinner sets to become available, along with dessert and toilette sets, not long after full sized English-made sets were part of middle and upper class households. Children learned rituals and manners by having dinner or tea parties with their peers, or by serving their dolls. The second part of this series will present a diversity of English toy dishes with the joy they bring in their charm and whimsy!

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A century’s worth of children’s sugar boxes or bowls. Tune in next time to find out how they rank from circa 1820 to circa 1900!

P.S. “Can’t I Just Have a Tiny Book?”

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Miss Ruby and Little Davie snuggle in with their “tiny books.” “Davie, how many strawberries did the caterpillar eat before it turned into a butterfly?” “Oh, Ruby, I lost count. I was watching the pearl turn into the moon in Grandfather Twilight.

While working in the bookstore tonight, I witnessed a tantrum. Now, it is not unusual to hear little ones put up a fuss, and it is usually not pleasant to listen to. This, however, had to be the cutest tantrum I have ever heard:

A little girl, about 7 years old, is wailing as she follows her mom who is striding purposefully toward the exit. She sobs, “Can’t I just have a tiny book? They have tiny books!”

What a synchronicity when I have just been writing about tiny books! Now I know that this little girl most likely meant an “inexpensive book” in this situation, but maybe she, too, has a special affinity for small things. And I, for one, hope and wish that little ones will have “tiny books” and big books to their hearts’ content.

Sweet reading, and sweet dreams.

Jennie

A  Long Regard for Small Things

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Karen with the bedroom furniture. 2014

As long as I can remember, I have had a special affinity for small things: little natural wonders like seashells, tiny bright stones, feathers and acorns, and miniatures. As a child, I made rooms for my dolls in any likely place. My mother’s fireplace clock on a table was a favorite spot to make a cozy little doll room, and pulling out blocks of encyclopedias from the bookshelf left nice smaller doll rooms with a book on top for the ceiling. Smallest of all, the low cinder block wall around our Little Rock, Arkansas front yard had cubbies that were perfect room-size for an inexpensive 5″ doll with long brown hair that I bought with my own money. In the summer, she had a magical garden fairy world with an unexpected bit of high tech–if she was kidnapped and stranded on the shelf of a higher stone wall, my brother’s battery powered helicopter would come and rescue her!

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The fireplace clock now belongs to me and is still a favorite centerpiece for little doll displays. The fire is lit with a Christmas tree light bulb. Here are Karen and Vicki’s Ginny and Muffie dolls enjoying the fire’s warmth as they watch the clock for tea time.

As a young adult, I became enthralled with 1/12th scale miniatures after several trips to see the Thorne Rooms at the Chicago Art Institute. I could stand for hours gazing into those glass fronted boxes where everything was so lifelike, even with perfect lighting and shadows. I felt like I could fall right into that eighteenth century kitchen! There were no dolls to break the suspension of disbelief in these tiny realms. You expected a live person to walk in and resume living there.

Thorne Rooms Pennsylvania Kitchen 1752

Thorne Rooms Pennsylvania Kitchen 1752.

Of course I had to make my own mini house which, given my limited means and space, was made of stacked sturdy boxes. I called it “Der Kline Haus,” which means simply “The Small House.”

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This hand-made intricately detailed 1/12th scale cradle once resided in the master bedroom of my dollhouse. I crocheted the tiny little coat and hat, that are shown here in the cradle, from size 20 cotton thread in the 1980’s when my eyesight was better. This crochet set and the rug, which is actually a vintage lamp mat, were all part of the sadly demolished Der Kline Haus. The china dolls, circa 1850’s and 1860’s, have not had the pleasure of visiting Der Kline Haus in its prime.

Then I discovered the wonder of antique toy furniture in 1/8th scale, perfect for Ginny and 8″ Madame Alexander dolls, at the Fowler House Museum just two blocks from where I lived in Lafayette Indiana. It must have been a joy and an adventure for the original owners of that dollhouse to find those little wooden treasures of furniture, and copper pots and pottery dishes, on world travels! This house was made to be played with, dolls in their settings in the rooms.

My dollhouse has been packed away for many years. The box-rooms were discarded as the wallpaper (some of which was made from wrapping paper from my wedding gifts!) faded and turned brown. Yet I still can’t resist picking up little things in the course of my wanderings. And like Auri in Patrick Rothfuss’ tale, The Slow Regard of Silent Things, I listen to the things to know where they best want to be; to know where they will be comfortable and where they belong. Until now, the little things have been in various places throughout the house, some more comfortable than others. Teeny tiny seashells found in the sand of a long-ago Far East beach are in a little bottle in the bathroom. A doll-size Japanese clasp purse is on a shelf of the desk. Little wooden and metal toys are in a small cabinet in the bedroom. Miniature books are in a drawer or on the shelf near larger books. Fingertip sized perfume bottles are in the “powder room” cabinet. Child sized dishes live in a wooden box on top of the antique sewing machine, or get overwhelmed among the larger Depression Glass. (No, they are not comfortable there!)

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These small kitchen items, including a cordial glass, a silver corn scewer, two silver salt spoons, and toy pans and dishes, are now collected together on an antique spice cupboard that is the right size to be a doll cabinet.

Last summer I gave you a glance at my long-ago packed away and brought out anew doll bed and the newly acquired dresser to go with it, along with a coordinating ladderback chair. These, along with some of the scattered minis as accessories, make a lovely little bedroom for the lady china dolls. Paula Walton’s post (IzannahWalker.com) from July 2014 showing Edyth O’Neal’s wonderful large scale closet doll house inspired me to clear off enough shelf space in my hall closet to tuck in a little bedroom for the ladies. Besides, where else would I have room to display this 1/4th scale doll furniture? It could have ended up in the closet packed away for lack of display space, so why not as a display in the closet instead? Near perfect solution! I don’t see this enchanting room every day, but when I do slide open that closet door, I can peek in at Edith and Miss Bettina Bumblebottom as they sit on the bed in their crisp white undies, drinking tea and confiding secrets to each other.

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Edith (in the red boots) and Miss Bettina Bumblebottom spend hours and days with each other in the closet bedroom as they await new wardrobes. Edith is sharing her favorite sentiments from a mini book of Love Letters while her tea gets cold in the little blue Depression Glass cup on the chair to the left. Bettina’s cup is Blue Willow transferware from Occupied Japan, and was an excellent second-hand store find!

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Little white kid leather shoes that long ago belonged to a bisque doll have a home now under the ladderback chair. I have had these shoes for more than 30 years before finding a place for them to truly belong.

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You can see on the dresser-top a doily that I crocheted, and on it is a red English transferware bowl that is probably a salt bowl. It was not intended as a child’s or doll dish, yet it fits perfectly in this setting. Barely visible in the bowl are tortoise shell hairpins for a bisque doll. They also find a place to belong here, even though neither the Chinas, nor the Izannah can wear them! Behind the bowl is a little tintype in its case. Three perfume bottles are on the right, with more small bottles and a little fan on the left.

Like my closet bedroom, Tasha Tudor’s acclaimed doll house is also 1/4th scale, consisting of special items from her childhood dollhouse made for her by her mother, of fabulous antiques collected by Tasha, and of special gifts from her friends and family. Her dollhouse, originally set up on large shelves in her home, was created for dolls that Tasha made herself. Later, a special house was made for her treasures and displayed in Colonial Williamsburg for twenty years. Now, Tasha’s dollhouse is back at her Home, Corgi Cottage. Tours, run by part of her family after her death, are very limited and are quite expensive.

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Note the antique toy Staffordshire plates on the wall shelf, and the matching tureen on the table.

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The furniture in this house is quite exquisite. These dolls have a more affluent lifestyle than my dolls who prefer their primitive style surroundings.

And now, who among China, Papier Mache, and Izannah Walker doll lovers wouldn’t fall in love with an Izannah home like Joy Harrington’s, featured in the August 2015 issue of Antique Doll Collector magazine? Not only is this small house a delightful home for antique dolls, it’s the perfect way to bring together and display a lifetime of collected small antiques! I have pored over this article, gleaning every little whimsy, and again, I am inspired to bring together my own collection in a display that is more doll house-like, if not actually a large scale dollhouse.

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“A Visit to an Izannah Home” by Joy Harrington

At this point in time, my best option beyond the closet bedroom is my stairs which are wide enough to accommodate a multi-level keeping room display. Perhaps later in the fall or winter, when renovations to our apartment building wind down, I can try a two room display on my extra antique dining table.

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On my stairs, an antique doll cupboard holds an abundance of French, and English Staffordshire, doll china and pottery. Laundry waits to be put away in a basket near the cupboard. On the step behind the cupboard is my newest find–a little silverplate coffee pot that came from Goodwill! It is waiting to find its best place to belong.

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More of my stairstep display with twin Hertig dollhouse size little girls on the Seth Tudor made chair.

I am so enthusiastic about the large scale doll houses that I would like to write about more insights in several more posts. Coming up will be postings on miniature scales and choosing the right size of furniture and accessories for the dolls, on furniture and little things for putting together the displays, which seem to be fluid as collections grow and change, and on English Staffordshire toy or doll china, my newest antique collectible love. We could even have a tea party!

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There is so much information on 1/12th scale miniatures, and so little on doll sized small things. The small things, unlike “miniatures” are large enough to be a pleasure to hold. It is also a sensual delight to contemplate small things not meant to be toys that can be seamlessly added into a doll’s space. What a fun and endearing venture into the world of the whimsical and enchantment! Come and play with me!

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Ruby has a new soft and cuddly quilt just her size, and some very special little china dolls to snuggle up with.

On the Demise of a Mechanical Companion

writing by candlelight

Okay, so I’m a hopeless sentimental. I also adhere to strident Scottish thriftiness and ingenuity. So I don’t easily let go of the old to be replaced with the latest and the greatest new gadget or machine. You already know of my reverence for history and old things. Here’s a little family anecdote as illustration: My oldest son and his partner, Sarah, spent Christmas with me in my little apartment. When I went to light some candles for ambiance, I found that the wick of one of them had stuck into the melted wax the last time it was burned, so I asked my daughter if she would get a knife and dig the wick out of the wax. Sarah, though, ever the pragmatist, said, “Just throw it away!” I replied with reverence that 200 years ago, people relied on their candles as the only source of light after the sun went down. Candles were valuable! And Sarah countered that they are not valuable any more. So I threw that candle away in acquiescence to her.

candles with dripping wax

Up until a few years ago I was driving a 1992 jade green Honda Accord. This car, who I named Harmony Jade, was a classic, being 20 years old by then. She was all paid for, and she belonged to me alone. Sure, there were a few problems, like the driver’s side window that would no longer open, and the dash lights were finicky. But this car was reliable. She got me to work every day, and she was waiting to take me home again every night. She was made before car alarms were standard issue, and you still used a key to open the locks. Because this model car was desireable prey for car thieves, I used a club on the steering wheel. I promised myself that I would drive this car until she fell apart from old age.

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One Friday night in November, Harmony Jade’s engine cut out and would not re-start as I was driving home from a late shift at work. I had to park her a couple of miles from home and wait for Monday to get her to the shop. When I got to her again she had been vandalized. The thieves cut the steering wheel to get the club off. Apparently they were furious when they found that they could not steal her because she wouldn’t start. They stole the battery and cut every hose under the hood. My Harmony Jade had been murdered! Yes, I cried at this outrage to my reliable and trusty car. While insurance did reimburse me for my car’s monetary value, this summed up to one tenth of the price of my new used car. And of course my insurance rate is higher now too. I now drive a 2006 garnet colored Honda Civic with a sun roof, and I am just as fond of her now as I was of Harmony Jade, even if she is standard transmission and not five speed. And the car payments every month are not fun–that money could have been going towards a European doll tour!

2006 garnet honda civic

As you can see with my car choices, I like to shop for quality, even if they are (as they say now) “pre-owned.” In 2006 I finally needed to buy my own computer, since I was no longer in the position to share one with a husband or to use my brother’s. So I shopped for quality and bought a Dell laptop. And I have been happy with it. It’s good quality and–barring theft–it should last for years, right? After all, I have some electric kitchen appliances from the 1940’s and 50’s that still work. Wrong again! Over the past few months, my trusty Dell (who I did NOT name) has become slower and slower in operating with more and more glitches. A major transgression is that I can no longer download photos from my camera. This really puts a kink in my efforts to create beautiful and personalized blog posts! And so now you know the number one reason why my blog site has been silent this past Autumn and Winter.

1940s hand mixer

According to my son, one can expect a laptop to last about four years. Mine is coming up on nine years, so maybe I need to loosen up on my Scottish thriftiness and put the Dell out to pasture, or wherever one puts old computers. After all, tax return time is coming up to finance a new one. But wait! It’s not completely broken! Maybe I could make it last longer!

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So it goes . . . But you see, being frugal with “necessities” is why I have been able to acquire a few antique china dolls, which I adore!, on my rather small budget. A computer may be a necessity in the 21st century, but I just do not adore my laptop (sorry, old girl) like I adore my china dolls, or even my trusty steed (aka car). So that means blog posts may be few and far between until I talk myself into this new necessity. Until then, I am grateful for your continuing views. ~Jennie

Antique photo 19th century girl with china doll